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This paper evaluates the current approaches used for dating writing inks and takes a critical look at conclusions that can be made on the basis of the different laboratory techniques. Egan Research Chemist Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit Quantico, Virginia Kristin A.Humidity also increases degradation, which can be explained by the basicity of the paper.The influence of heat on the degradation process was found to be rather weak.Sample authentication also can be tested based on ink analysis of raw colorant materials available during a specific historical period.To unambiguously identify specific inks, data interpretation is simplified if a chemical-separation step precedes detection of various components in ink formulations.Inks are complex mixtures of colorants, vehicles, and additives, which are adjusted in composition to produce the desired writing characteristics (Industrial Dyes: Chemistry, Property, Applications 2003).Colorants are compounds that give ink the desired color and can include any or all of the following chemical classifications: pigments and/or acidic, basic, azoic, direct, disperse, reactive, and solvent dyes.

LDI was found adequate and very useful for the analysis of ballpoint dyes directly from paper without further pretreatment.Hagan Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Visiting Scientist Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit Quantico, Virginia Jason D.Brewer Chemist Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Chemistry Unit Quantico, Virginia Abstract | Introduction | Experimental Samples | Capillary Electrophoresis| Cationic Dye | Anionic Dye | Thin-Layer Chromatography | Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry | Results and Discussion | Reliability and Validation | Ballpoint Pen Inks | Other Applications | Conclusion | References Capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet-visible photodiode array detection (190–600 nm) was studied as an alternative separation and identification tool for forensic ink examination.A database of ballpoint pen ink analyses and common-dye reference standards has been constructed for future forensic use.Capillary electrophoresis allows ease of sample preparation with the ability to separate and identify dye compounds based on a calculated electrophoretic mobility and a characteristic ultraviolet-visible spectrum.

Advances in ways to date inks have been publicized over the past 17 years.

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