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Among the lesser tribes or sub-divisions were the Bracari, Coelerni, Equaesi, Grovii, Interamici, Leuni, Luanqui, Limici, Narbasi, Nemetati, Paesuri, Quaquerni, Seurbi, Tamagani, Tapoli, Turduli, Turduli Veteres, Turdulorum Oppida, Turodi, and Zoelae.
A few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements (such as Tavira) were also founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians.
This usage is long since obsolete, but "Portingale" remains a family name found in England and other English-speaking countries - such a name likely indicating centuries-old family ancestry from a Portuguese immigrant to England.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe.
During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale.
The name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho, the Minho flowing along what would become the northern Portugal-Spain border.
Portugal as a country was established in the aftermath of the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD.Some French scholars believe it may have come from 'Portus Gallus', the port of the Gauls or Celts.Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale (Port of Cale).A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy, a developed market, and high living standards. Portugal ranks above the OECD average in mathematics, science, and reading, having been the country with the most expressive positive evolution throughout PISA's studies.Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing.